Duluth Lynchings Online Resource
  1. Statement of Purpose
  2. Timeline
  3. Oral Histories
  4. People
  5. Glossary
  6. Additional Resources
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Chronology of Events

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Citations
     
  Statement of Purpose

1. Green, William D. Foreword to The Lynchings in Duluth, by Michael Fedo (St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2000), vii.

Background

1.  US Bureau of the Census, Twelfth Census of the United States, Taken in the Year 1900: Population. Volume 1. United States Census Office. (Washington, D.C., 1901), 457; US Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1920: Composition and Characteristics of the Population by States. Volume III. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1922), 508.

2.  US Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1920: Composition and Characteristics of the Population by States. Volume III. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1922), 497, 508.

3.  Waskow, Arthur, From Race Riot to Sit-in, 1919 and 1960s: A Study in the Connections Between Conflict and Violence (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966), 38.

4.  National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States 1889-1918 (New York: Negro University Press, 1969 [1919 ed.]), 31.

5.  Ibid., 31.

6.  Marilyn Ziebarth, “Judge Lynch in Minnesota,” Minnesota History 55, no. 2 (Summer 1996): 72.

The Lynchings

1.  Chicago Evening Post quoted in “Minnesota’s Disgrace,” The Appeal (St. Paul, Minn), 19 June 1920, p 2.

2.  “The Duluth Disgrace,” Minneapolis Journal, 17 June 1920, p. 18.

3.  “Duluth’s Sad Experiment,” National Advocate (Minneapolis, Minn), 3 July 1920, p. 1.

4.  “The City’s Shame,” The Duluth Ripsaw, 26 June 1920, p. 2.

5.  Ely Miner, 18 June 1920, p. 4.

6.  “The Duluth Tragedy,” Mankato Daily Free Press, 17 June 1920, p. 6.

7.  “Superior Police to Deport Idle Negroes At Once,” Duluth News Tribune, 17 June 1920, p. 1.

Legal Proceedings

No citations.

Incarcerations

No citations.

Afterwards

1.  US Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1920: Composition and Characteristics of the Population by States. Volume III. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1922), 508; US Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census of the United Sates: 1930: Reports by States showing the Composition and Characteristics of the Population for Counties, Cities, Townships, or Other Minor Civil Divisions. Volume III, Part 1. (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1932), 1203.

2.  National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Eleventh Annual Report of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, For the Year 1920 (New York: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, January 1921), cover and 21, 32-33.

3.  Ethel Ray Nance, Oral history interviews of the Minnesota Black History Project, 1970-1975. Minnesota Historical Society; “Races Dependent Upon Each Other, Says Dr. Du Bois,“ Duluth Herald, 22 March 1921, p. 11.

 

 
  1. Statement of Purpose
  2. Timeline
  3. Oral Histories
  4. People
  5. Glossary
  6. Additional Resources

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