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Duluth Lynchings Online Resource
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Chronology of Events

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Addtional Resources
     
  MHS Reference Library

The following resources are available at the MHS Reference Library. They are good places to begin your research on the Duluth lynchings and related topics. For further resources, search the library catalog.

Books

Allen, James, et al. Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America. Santa Fe, N.M.: Twin Palms, 2000.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D43312471

Chadbourn, James Harmon. Lynching and the Law. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1933.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D2674472

Dindorf, William Edward. History of the Duluth Police Department. Published by and for the Benefit of the Duluth Policemen's Training School. Duluth, Minn.: Duluth Policemen's Training School, 1920.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D30477742

Duluth Publishing Co. (Duluth, Minn.). Mob Violence: A Photographic Review and Descriptive Account of the Appalling Lynching of three Negroes by a Revengeful Mob after Alleged Assault on a Young White Girl, at Duluth, Minnesota, June 15, 1920. Duluth, Minn.: Duluth Publishing Co., c1920.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D30489383

Fedo, Michael. The Lynchings in Duluth. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2000.
[Originally published: "They Was Just Niggers". Ontario, Calif.: Brasch and Brasch, c1979.]

http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D43403426

They Chose Minnesota, A Survey of Minnesota’s Ethnic Groups, edited by June Drenning Holmquist. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1981.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D7795186

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Eleventh Annual Report of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, for the Year 1920. New York: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1921.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D17863591

Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889-1918. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969 [1919 ed.]
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D70916

Nelson, Paul D. Fredrick L. McGhee: a Life on the Color Line, 1861-1912. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2002.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D48500919

Sandvik, Glen N. Duluth: An Illustrated History of the Zenith City. Woodland Hills, Calif.: Windsor Publications, 1983.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D9280829

Shay, Frank. Judge Lynch, His First Hundred Years. New York: I. Washburn, Inc., c1938
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D374718

Spangler, Earl. The Negro in Minnesota. Minneapolis: T. S. Denison, 1961.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D1020755

Taylor, David Vassar. African Americans in Minnesota. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2002.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D49610982

Blacks in Minnesota: A Preliminary Guide to Historical Sources, compiled by David Vassar Taylor. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1976.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D2189395

Waskow, Arthur. From Race Riot to Sit-in, 1919 and 1960s: A Study in the Connections Between Conflict and Violence. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D253273

Wilkins, Roy. Standing Fast: The Autobiography of Roy Wilkins. New York: Viking Press, [1982].
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D8050513

Articles

Hoffbeck, Steven R. “Victories Yet to Win: Charles W. Scrutchin, Bemidji's Black A, Steven R. “Victories Yet to Win: Charles W. Scrutchin, Bemidji's Black Activist Attorney.” Minnesota History. Vol. 55, no. 2 (Summer 1996).
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D35679278

Ziebarth, Marilyn. “Judge Lynch in Minnesota.” Minnesota History, Vol. 55/2 (Summer 1996).
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D47047296

“Duluth Apologizes After 71 Years.” Crisis (New York, N.Y.) Vol. 99, no. 1 (Jan. 1992).
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D36945776

Records

Fedo, Michael W. Duluth lynchings book files, 1978-1979. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D900322309

Duluth (Minnesota) lynchings of 1920: selected materials, 1920-1976 (bulk 1920-1925) [microform]. Saint Paul, Minn.: Minnesota Historical Society, 2001.
[The entirety of this microfilm has been scanned and is searchable on the Duluth Lynchings Online Resource website.]

http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D900322841

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Subject file: Lynching: Duluth, Minn., 1920-1921 [microform]. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, c1987.
[NAACP records relating to the Duluth lynchings]

http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D900323384

Oral Histories

The lynchings and the black community in Duluth are discussed in several oral history interviews conducted from 1970-1975 as part of the Minnesota Black History Project.
http://mnhs.mnpals.net/F/?func=find-c&ccl_term=palsn%3D32747913

Newspapers

The Minnesota Black Newspaper Index (pdf) is a guide to people and subjects — including the Duluth lynchings — covered by the state’s black newspapers from the 1880s to 1940s.

The Duluth News Tribune Newspaper Index (pdf) is a guide to articles appearing in the Duluth News Tribune in the months after the lynchings.

The Duluth Herald Newspaper Index (pdf) is a guide to articles appearing in the Duluth Herald in the months after the lynchings.

Articles regarding the Duluth lynchings appeared in several newspapers, including:

• The Appeal (St. Paul)
• Duluth Herald
• Duluth News Tribune
• Ely Miner
• Labor World.
(Duluth)
• Mankato Daily Free Press
• Minneapolis Journal
• Minneapolis Messenger
• Minneapolis Morning Tribune
• Minnesota Messenger
(Minneapolis)
• National Advocate
(Minneapolis)
• Northwestern Bulletin
(St. Paul)
• Saint Paul Dispatch
• St. Cloud Daily Times
• St. Paul Daily News
• St. Paul Echo
• St. Paul Pioneer Press

Photographs

Use the Visual Resources Database to search and view photographs, artwork, and posters from the collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, including historical photographs of Duluth and images from the lynchings.

External Web Links

Clayton, Jackson, McGhie, Memorial Committee
http://www.claytonjacksonmcghie.org

Minnesota Public Radio. Lynching Victims Memorial Takes Shape in Duluth.
http://news.mpr.org/projects/2001/06/lynching/index.shtml

PBS Online Newshour. Atonement.
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/race_relations/jan-june03/duluth_06-16.html

Tolerance.org. Duluth Remembers 1920 Lynching.
http://www.tolerance.org/news/article_tol.jsp?id=879

Without Sanctuary
http://www.journale.com/withoutsanctuary/index_body.html

Public Broadcasting Atlanta. Atlanta 1906: A Race Riot.
http://www.bookmarkmedia.com/Atlanta1906/site/

Chicago Public Library. The Race Riots: Biennial Report 1918-1919.
http://www.chipublib.org/004chicago/disasters/text/coroner/intro.html

Illinois Periodicals Online. The Springfield Race Riot of 1908.
http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/iht329622.html

Library of Congress, American Memory. African American Perspectives, Pamphlets from the Daniel A. P. Murray Collection 1818-1907.
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aap/aaphome.html

University of North Carolina. Documenting the American South.
http://docsouth.unc.edu

PBS. The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/index.html

American RadioWorks. Remembering Jim Crow.
http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/remembering/

 

 
  1. Statement of Purpose
  2. Timeline
  3. Oral Histories
  4. People
  5. Glossary
  6. Additional Resources

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