Paul Mazakutemani (Little Paul)

Mazakutemani or He Who Shoots as He Walks (Little Paul) was educated at Rev. Williamson’s mission school in 1835, where he learned to read and write the Dakota language. He converted to Christianity, practiced European American-style farming, and helped organize the Hazelwood Republic (a self-governing body of Dakota farmers at Rev. Stephen Riggs’ mission on the Yellow Medicine (Upper Sioux) Reservation. During the 1862 war Mazakutemani helped organize the "Peace Party" and served as a spokesman for Dakota who opposed the war. After the war he served as a scout during the Punitive Expeditions into the Dakota Territory.

Mazakutemani wrote a reminiscence about his experiences during the war around 1880 and sent the manuscript to be translated by Stephen Riggs. The manuscript was later published by the Minnesota Historical Society, and excerpts are provided on this page.

Narrative Source:
Paul Mazakutemani, "Narrative of Paul Mazakootemane," Minnesota Historical Collections 3 (1880): 82-90.


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Camp Release.


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Camp Release monument.


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"The Indian War in Minnesota", New York Daily Tribune, October 11, 1862


Memories of War U.S. Military Non-Combatants Dakota "Peace Party" Dakota Soldiers