Thaddeus Williams letter to Lincoln

Nov. 22, 1862

"So in the march of civilized humanity across the New World, the lurking savage, with lust and vengeance in his heart has ever lurked by the pathway, and suspended over the couch of the pioneer the tom-a-hawk and scalping-knife, those terrible emblems of savage cruelty and demoniac hatred…. Not only does justice require the blood of these savages, but vengeance will have it – the people of this State…are so exasperated against the Indians that if the authorities do not hang them, they will…. Every man will become an Avenger, & from the e unerring rifles of the backwoodsmen there will be no "city of refuge"; every man who has lost a home, friend, or relation, has bared his right arm, & sworn eternal vengeance, to shoot every Indian he meets henceforth as he would a bear or wolf...."

Memories of War U.S. Military Non-Combatants Dakota "Peace Party" Dakota Soldiers