Heard comments on the refugees at St. Peter, Minnesota

"St. Peter’s…was, a large, straggling town of several thousand inhabitants, and swelled to double its true number [due to the refugees], presenting a picture of excitement not easily forgotten. Oxen were killed in the streets, and the meat, hastily prepared, cooked over fires made on the ground. The grist-mills were surrendered by their owners to the use of the public, and kept in constant motion to allay the demand for food…. Women were to be seen in the street hanging on each other’s necks, telling of their mutual losses, and the little terror-stricken children, surviving remnants of once happy homes, crying piteously around their knees. The houses and stables were all occupied, and hundreds of the fugitives had no covering or shelter but the canopy of heaven."

Heard, Isaac V. D. History of the Sioux War and Massacres of 1862 and 1863. New York: Harper & Brothers (1863), 119.

Memories of War U.S. Military Non-Combatants Dakota "Peace Party" Dakota Soldiers