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James A. Wright remembers long marches with the 1st Minnesota Infantry.

It must be remembered that each soldier carried a rifle which – with bayonet, etc. – weighed about 11 pounds. Also, 100 rounds of ammunition, knapsack, haversack, canteen, coffee pot, and whatever cooking utensils he had; his blanket, tent cloth, rubber [blanket], all extra clothing, and whatever else he might have  - writing paper, envelopes, keepsakes, or a book…. The soldiers must carry all of these things for himself and make his rations last him or suffer for the want of them.

Source: Kenneth Carley, Minnesota and the Civil War (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2000), 173.



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Civil War hardtack pieces and wrapper


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Civil War hardtack


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US Model 1861 rifled musket


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US Army knapsack


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Members of the 3rd Minnesota Regiment, Company F in camp at Nashville, Tennessee


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Artillery shrapnel


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Francis Clalin, disguised as a man, served in the 44th Regiment, Missouri Artillery, Company I for 3 months and in the 13th Missouri Cavalry, Company A, for 19 months.


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Battle of Nashville


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