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G. Merril Dwelle describes the food received by the soldiers

The bill of fare you shall have for reference when you come to dine with me for be it whatever meal it may it is all the same. Dinner, Supper, or Breakfast…. We have a ration of hard bread which is a poor quality of crackers. Then we have a ration of Beef boiled, sometimes fresh but usually salt. Rice and Beans, Cofee & Sugar. Rice & Coffee I never use and the way they cook Beans I never can eat them which is in a soup with fat Pork…. Our rations of crackers is ten per day of Beef one and a fourth pounds per day. Beans half pint. Whiskey one gill.

Source: Kenneth Carley, Minnesota and the Civil War: An Illustrated History (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2000), 114.


Civil War hardtack pieces and wrapper


Civil War hardtack


US Model 1861 rifled musket


US Army knapsack


Members of the 3rd Minnesota Regiment, Company F in camp at Nashville, Tennessee


Artillery shrapnel


Francis Clalin, disguised as a man, served in the 44th Regiment, Missouri Artillery, Company I for 3 months and in the 13th Missouri Cavalry, Company A, for 19 months.


Battle of Nashville

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